Science | Jobs | Life | Policy | Global

Welcome to Swedish Policy Documents

("Photosynthesis" OR "Fotosyntes") 150+ documents

Get policy updates on this search to your inbox >>
Your e-mail address:   

    What does (photosynthesis Or Fotosyntes) mean? Let's check what the community at Wikipedia thinks

    På svenska: Fotosyntes är den process där växter och andra levande organismer tar hand om energi från solljus och lagrar energin i kemiska bindningar. Den vanligaste formen är kolsyreassimilation hos växter och cyanobakterier, som innebär att de under dagen tar in koldioxid, vatten och solenergi som de med hjälp av klorofyll omvandlar till syre och druvsocker. Syret och druvsockret använder de vid cellandningen och under natten när de avger koldioxid. Fotosyntesen i växter försiggår i bladen vars celler har kloroplaster, som anses vara symbiotiska cyanobakterier. Ljusreaktionerna sker i anslutning till tylakoidernas fosfolipidmembraner, medan mörkerreaktionen äger rum i det vätskefyllda stromat. Fotosyntes utan syreproduktion anses vara en ursprungligare process och förekommer fortfarande hos bakterier. Lär dig mer på Wikipedia
    In English: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's activities. Some of this chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars and starches, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek phōs (φῶς), "light", and synthesis (σύνθεσις), "putting together". Most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis; such organisms are called photoautotrophs. Photosynthesis is largely responsible for producing and maintaining the oxygen content of the Earth's atmosphere, and supplies most of the energy necessary for life on Earth.Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centers that contain green chlorophyll (and other colored) pigments/chromophores. In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane. In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip electrons from suitable substances, such as water, producing oxygen gas. The hydrogen freed by the splitting of water is used in the creation of two further compounds that serve as short-term stores of energy, enabling its transfer to drive other reactions: these compounds are reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the "energy currency" of cells. In plants, algae and cyanobacteria, sugars are synthesized by a subsequent sequence of light-independent reactions called the Calvin cycle. In the Calvin cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated into already existing organic carbon compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP). Using the ATP and NADPH produced by the light-dependent reactions, the resulting compounds are then reduced and removed to form further carbohydrates, such as glucose. In other bacteria, different mechanisms such as the reverse Krebs cycle are used to achieve the same end. The first photosynthetic organisms probably evolved early in the evolutionary history of life and most likely used reducing agents such as hydrogen or hydrogen sulfide, rather than water, as sources of electrons. Cyanobacteria appeared later; the excess oxygen they produced contributed directly to the oxygenation of the Earth, which rendered the evolution of complex life possible. Today, the average rate of energy capture by photosynthesis globally is approximately 130 terawatts, which is about eight times the current power consumption of human civilization. Photosynthetic organisms also convert around 100–115 billion tons (91–104 Pg petagrams, or billion metric tons), of carbon into biomass per year. That plants receive some energy from light – in addition to air, soil, and water – was first discovered in 1779 by Jan Ingenhousz. Photosynthesis is vital for climate processes, as it captures carbon dioxide from the air and then binds carbon in plants and further in soils and harvested products. Cereals alone are estimated to bind 3,825 Tg (teragrams) or 3.825 Pg (petagrams) of carbon dioxide every year, i.e. 3.825 billion metric tons. Learn more at Wikipedia